Database Management Basics

Database management is a method of managing information that supports a company’s business operations. It includes data storage, distributing it to users and applications and modifying it as needed and monitoring the changes in the data and preventing it from getting damaged due to unexpected failure. It is a part of the overall informational infrastructure of a company which supports decision-making as well as corporate growth and compliance with laws like the GDPR and California Consumer Privacy Act.

In the 1960s, Charles Bachman and IBM along with others created the first database systems. They evolved into information management systems (IMS) which allowed massive amounts of data to be stored and retrieved for a range of reasons. From calculating inventory, to aiding complex financial accounting functions and human resource functions.

A database consists of a set of tables that are organized according to some arrangement, like one-to-many relationships. It makes use of primary keys to identify records and allow cross-references among tables. Each table is comprised of a set of fields, referred to as attributes, that represent facts about data entities. Relational models, developed by E. F. “Ted” Codd in the 1970s at IBM as a database, are the most well-known database type in the present. This design is based on normalizing data to make it easier to use. It also makes it simpler to update data without the need to modify many sections of the database.

Most DBMSs can support various types of databases, by providing different levels of internal and external organization. The internal level is concerned with the cost, scalability, and other operational issues, such as the physical layout of the database. The external level is the representation of the database on user interfaces and applications. It could comprise a combination of different external views (based on the different data models) and may also include virtual tables that are computed from generic data to improve performance.

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